Attached in July, 2000, Russia's Service Module provided the very first International Space Station living and lab quarters for the intrepid pioneers who work at the frontiers of science and history as they establish a permanent human presence in space.
When it was joined to the ISS First Element, the 42,000-lb., the pressurized outpost assumed flight control, data processing and communications systems, as well as water and power. Its guidance and propulsion systems took over those functions from the Functional Cargo Block Zarya . Although many of these systems will be supplemented or replaced by later U.S. station components, the Service Module will always remain the structural and functional center of the Russian segment of the International Space Station.
The Module is designed for a crew of three and will accommodate up to six for crew transfer operations. It arrived on station with no pilot, and no crew, and was remotely piloted and mated with the First Element, a feat the Russians have accomplished many times in the past.
A Russian Proton rocket boosted the Module into orbit from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
Ground control and the Russian "automated rendezvous and docking" system directed the First Element- Unity and Zarya-to fire its engines and navigate to the Service Module. They then mated the Module to Zarya end of the First Element.
The new arrival had four docking ports. Russia's Progress resupply vehicle used one of them to refuel the Module. Russia's Science Power Platform, Universal Docking Module and Soyuz spacecraft used the other ports.
|ZVEZDA - Quick Facts
|Gross launching weight:
||3-stage Proton rocket
||Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan
At 43-ft. long, the Service Module is a little more than one-third the length of the Space Shuttle. It has two main engines and a solar array "wingspan" of 97.5 ft. Its 14 windows make it a room with a view that is tough to beat. But the windows are also used for aiding in docking, spacewalking and other heavy duty work.
The Module will has three compartments. Two small ones are attached to either end of the long "Work Compartment." They serve as crew transfer facilities. The Work Compartment houses a lab, three individual sleeping quarters (each with a window), and a bathroom, galley, a treadmill and stationary bicycle.
An unpressurized Assembly Compartment surrounds one of the transfer chambers. It holds external equipment such as communications antennas for data, voice and TV communications with Mission Control Centers in Moscow and Houston. It also holds propellant tanks and thrusters for providing ISS propulsion, reboost, and position ("attitude") control.
Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Center is built the Service Module, which is Russia's main contribution to the ISS. Khrunichev also built the Control Module Zarya, a project in which Boeing shared responsibility.