Introducing the 767-400 Extended Range Airplane


The Boeing 767-400 Extended Range (ER) airplane is the latest derivative in the 767 family, and is the first new airplane designed together by Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and Douglas Products Division (DPD). It is intended to replace the venerable Airbus A300/A310, DC-10, and L-1011 airplanes currently in service around the world. The 767-400ER delivers improved operating economics compared to these airplanes while offering similar seating capacity and range. It also provides operators of existing 767-200/-300 airplanes with the ability to increase passenger capacity and improve operating economics. The rollout of the 767-400ER is scheduled for August 1999, followed by first flight in September. First delivery is planned for May 2000.

Design of the 767-400ER, a derivative of the 767-300ER, began in January 1997 through a technical assistance agreement between Boeing and the former Douglas Aircraft Company. Since the August 1997 merger of Boeing and McDonnell Douglas, the two divisions of the new Boeing Company have reached final configuration for the new airplane. Scheduled for delivery to launch customer Delta Air Lines in May 2000, this stretched version of the 767-300ER includes several improvements to meet customer requirements for increased passenger capacity and improved operating economics. To meet those requirements, 767-400ER activities focused on the following:

1. Virtual teaming.

2. Capacity and performance improvements.

Virtual Teaming
Boeing relied on a relationship with then-Douglas Aircraft Company personnel to begin designing the 767-400ER in early 1997. In order to keep to schedule, the design effort took place through "virtual teaming," where Boeing and Douglas people in different geographical locations used computing and management tools to work together as a team. The combined team tested its operating concept by addressing two major changes for incorporation into the new airplane: a new raked tip for the wing and a new APU and tail skid in section 48, as well as minor structure and system revisions to accommodate these features. The team also agreed that the 767-400ER would be a minimum-change airplane, with each change weighed carefully for its benefits versus cost to operators. Because a significant cost of operation is provisioning for spare parts and the equipment needed to maintain them, Boeing worked with customers to find, as often as possible, an existing component to meet the requirement for the new airplane.

Capacity and Performance Improvements
The result of working with customers was a 767-400ER designed to meet their requirements for increased passenger capacity and improved operating economics. Changes were made in the following areas:

TAKEOFF PAYLOAD CAPABILITY.
The 767-400ER is 21 ft (6.4 m) longer than the 767-300ER, with a wing span increase of 14 ft 3 in (4.35 m). This increases the maximum takeoff weight of the airplane by 38,000 lb (17,240 kg) to 450,000 lb (204,120 kg), allowing for additional passengers and cargo.

PASSENGER CAPACITY.
The nominal three-class seating capacity has increased to accommodate 245 passengers, up from 218. As a result, the potable water system and lavatory waste system capacities have been increased by an additional 75 U.S. gal (283 L) of potable water, and 30 U.S. gal (113.6 L) of waste-tank capacity.

The larger tanks are located in the bulk cargo compartment area and have reduced the available bulk cargo area to 345 ft3 (9.77 m3) from 430 ft3 (12.18 m3). This is offset by increases in forward and aft cargo compartment capacity. The 767-400ER can carry one additional 96- by 125-in (2.44- by 3.18-m) pallet and four additional LD-2 containers, providing an extra 810 ft3 (22.9 m3) of cargo capacity. The method used to mount the cargo system power drive units has been simplified to dramatically reduce installation and removal time.

Increased cooling and ventilation demands resulted in an upgrade of the air-conditioning system to include new packs and control equipment. A new digital bleed system maximizes efficient utilization of bleed air, allowing use of the existing strut-mounted precooler. This new bleed system was designed to be significantly more reliable than the current system.

New, longer escape slides will be incorporated at doors 1, 2, and 4 because of the longer fuselage. During tail or nose tip conditions caused by nose or main landing gear collapse, these doors are higher off the ground than they are on the 767-300ER.

INTERIORS.
The most significant change from the passenger perspective is an all-new interior. This change was driven by the need to update the interior to look more like the rest of the Boeing family and to increase stow-bin capacity.

Working extensively with an airline advisory team, Boeing reached an agreement to retain the popular twin-aisle seating arrangement of the 767-300ER while featuring a new streamlined interior architecture with pivot-type stow bins similar to those used on the 777. Each outboard bin can now accommodate two Air Transport Association (ATA) 9- by 17- by 23.75-in (23- by 43- by 60-cm) roll-on bags stowed crossways; each center bin can hold one ATA-standard bag stowed lengthwise. In addition, the new interior features ceiling-mounted, retractable liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors.

ROTATION CAPABILITY.
The stretched fuselage significantly reduced the rotation attitude of the airplane during takeoff and landing. The reduced body angles resulted in undesirable effects on takeoff field length and approach speeds.

Boeing resolved this situation by incorporating an all-new landing gear that is 18 in (46 cm) taller than the existing gear. The wheels, tires, and brakes are identical to those on the 777. The new gear features 50-in (127-cm) radial tires, compared to 46-in (117-cm) diameter bias ply tires on the 767-300ER. Fitting this larger rolling stock into the existing wheel well caused relocation of most of the hydraulic lines and a shift in the wing-mounted trunnion of 10 in (25 cm) outboard and 4 in (10 cm) downward. The nose landing gear is basically unchanged except for strengthening to accommodate the increased gross weight of the 767-400ER.

The 3,000-lb (1,361-kg) weight increase of the larger landing gear slowed gear retraction times, reducing payload capacity out of obstacle-limited airports. A new, higher-capacity air drive unit allows gear retraction times that match those of the 767-300ER and adds up to 2,800 lb (1,270 kg) of increased payload capacity.

A shorter, crushable-cartridge tail skid, similar to that used on the 777, has also been added to provide more rotational capability. The higher rotational angle gives operators up to 1,000 lb (455 kg) of additional payload capacity when departing from obstacle-limited airports.

FLIGHT DECK.
The long-term strategy to provide a consistent look and feel in the flight deck of all Boeing models provides substantial cost-reduction benefits to operators for flight crew training and fleet operation. Boeing has been working with an industry advisory team to ensure that the new design meets current and future needs.

The 767-400ER incorporates a new flight deck similar to that on the 777. It includes six 8- by 8-in LCDs that replace the current displays and several instruments. Other changes include a new main instrument panel and glare shield, aisle stand, two-position landing gear selection lever, and a new air data inertial reference system that integrates the air data computers and inertial reference units. The overhead panels are largely unchanged.

By offering information displays very much like those on the 757 and 767, the 767-400ER retains the same type rating with current-generation 767 airplanes and a common type rating with current-generation 757 airplanes. This display format is called electronic flight instrument system/map and is a reproduction of flight deck displays and instruments on the new flat-panel displays.

A second format called primary flight display/navigation display is very similar to the format on the next-generation 737 (737-600/-700/-800/-900) and 777 models. This two-path approach gives operators the option of easy integration with existing 757 or 767 fleets or consistency with newer Boeing models.

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM.
A new electrical power system offers operators and their passengers a significantly enhanced capability to support inflight entertainment (IFE) systems and provides electrical power at the seats for personal computers. The 120-kVA system features integrated drive generators (IDG) common with the 777, no-break power transfers, and an additional external power receptacle. The auxiliary power unit is new to the Boeing fleet and has a 120-kVA generator. Provisions are offered for seven locations in the main cabin, and two cargo compartment racks for installing IFE equipment.

ENGINES.
The engines are essentially unchanged from those available on the 767-300ER, except for external equipment revisions needed to accommodate the 120-kVA IDGs and digital bleed system. The 767-400ER is available with either Pratt & Whitney PW4062 (63,300 lb of Boeing equivalent thrust, or BET) or General Electric CF6-80C2B7F1 engines (62,100 lb BET). In addition, an increased-thrust B8F version of this engine (63,500 lb BET) is also available.

PERFORMANCE.
Raked (swept-back) wingtips have been added to improve the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. They help reduce takeoff field length, increase climb performance, and reduce fuel burn. The new tips are 7 ft 8 in (2.34 m) long and are an all-composite structure, with an aluminum leading edge for erosion protection. Dispatch with the raked tips removed will be allowed in accordance with the configuration deviation list. The raked tips require the addition of new position lights on the aft end of section 48. Another factor that significantly affects performance is weight. Because every added pound of weight means more fuel to carry and may replace a pound of revenue-generating cargo under some situations, Boeing established a very aggressive weight management program early in the design process. To date, the anticipated weight of the airplane has been reduced by more than 8,000 lb (3,630 kg).

The largest single weight change resulted from the incorporation of a new stringerless passenger window reinforcement design. The windows on the 767-300ER are rectangular, and a Boeing study showed a potential weight savings of more than 630 lb (286 kg) through the adoption of the same oval-shaped passenger window used in the 777. The support structure for this new window was made simpler and lighter by eliminating the body skin stringers and using forgings.

CORROSION CONTROL.
Though the current 767 family has an excellent fleet history in corrosion control, service experience has shown that improvements are desirable in some specific areas. Accordingly, the following enhancements have been incorporated:

Summary
The 767-400ER derivative was designed to add significant passenger capability to the 767-300ER and to offer substantial economic improvements as a replacement for older models of similar size, such as the Airbus A300/A310, DC-10, and L-1011. Together, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and Douglas Products Division designed this newest extended-range airplane to build on the excellent reliability and service history of the 767, as well as other Boeing models, and to allow operators to easily add capacity to existing 767 routes or expand into new markets.


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Configuration Objectives

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Characteristics
Design weights Basic Option
Maximum taxi weight 401,000 lb
181,890 kg
451,000 lb
204,570 kg
Maximum takeoff weight 400,000 lb
181,440 kg
450,000 lb
204,120 kg
Maximum landing weight 350,000 lb
158,760 kg
350,000 lb
158,760 kg
Maximum zero fuel weight 330,000 lb
149,685 kg
330,000 lb
149,685 kg
Fuel capacity 24,140 U.S. gal
91,377 L
24,140 U.S. gal
91,377 L
Major dimensions Length overall 201 ft 4 in
61.37 m
Span, tip to tip 170 ft 4 in
51.92 m
Height, fin to ground 55 ft 4 in
16.87 m
Lower hold capability 5 pallets
18 LD-2 containers + bulk
Volume: 4,580 ft3;129.7 m3

or

38 LD-2 containers + bulk
Volume: 4,905 ft3; 138.9 m3

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Hank Queen
Chief Project Engineer
767-400 Extended Range Program
Boeing Commercial Airplane Group

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