Task Force briefing notes. Thirty-four briefing notes cover
various topics on preventing ALAs, including ALAs involving CFIT.
Each briefing note contains statistical data, a discussion section,
a summary, and lists of references and related readings. The briefing
notes are organized into eight broad subject areas: altimeter
and altitude, approach hazards, approach techniques, crew coordination,
descent and approach, the go-around, landing techniques, and standard
operating procedures (SOP).
- ALAR Task Force
conclusions and recommendations. The ALAR Task Forces eight
data-driven conclusions about ALAs (table
1) and 50 strategies for reducing ALAs are explained in detail.
- ALAR Task Force
This authoritative reference document on CFIT and ALAR, Killers
in Aviation, replaces qualitative ideas with quantitative
facts. For example, it was widely believed in the aviation industry
that non-passenger-carrying airplanes have higher ALA rates. The
task force quantified this belief by determining that the ALA
rate for ferry, freight, and positioning flights is eight times
greater than that for passenger flights.
- Approach and landing
risk-awareness tool. This supplement to the normal approach
briefing increases flight crew awareness of hazards and describes
the elements of a stabilized approach.
- Approach and landing
guide. These guidelines present industry best practices to
help chief pilots, flight-training managers, and dispatchers strategically
evaluate their training, SOPs, and airplane equipment.
- SOP template.
Airlines can use this tool to check their procedures and training
manuals. Adapted from the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
Advisory Circular AC 120-71, Standard Operating Procedures
for Flight Deck Crewmembers, the SOP template provides a comparison
of the operations procedures and training manuals of several airlines
and lists the areas for which most airlines have written procedures.
- CFIT checklist.
Guidelines for assessing the relative risk of CFIT for various
operations are presented in Arabic, Chinese, English, French,
Russian, and Spanish.
- CFIT alert.
Procedures are outlined for immediate flight crew response to
an alert from a ground proximity warning system or a terrain awareness
and warning system.
- Flight operations
and training. The ALAR Task Forces eight conclusions
(table 1) and 50 recommendations
for improved approach and landing safety are provided as a Microsoft®
PowerPoint® presentation. The presentation contains explanatory
notes, data, procedures, and recommendations for airplane operators
and flight crews.
- Equipment for airplane
and air traffic control. A PowerPoint presentation (with explanatory
notes) describes the ALAR Task Forces analysis of airplane
and air traffic control (ATC) equipment and methods for optimal
- ATC communications.
presentation (with explanatory notes) is designed to help improve
communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers
and increase their understanding of each others respective
- Flight crew guide
to preventing CFIT. This PowerPoint presentation is designed
to inform flight crews of CFIT hazards and prevention methods.
The presentation is provided because most CFIT accidents occur
when the airplane is lined up on the runway centerline, and two-thirds
occur within 8 nmi from the runway threshold.
- ALA data overview.
A PowerPoint presentation (with explanatory notes) highlights
data from ALAR Task Force findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
The data are based on high-level analyses of 287 fatal ALAs between
1980 and 1996, detailed studies of 76 ALAs between 1984 and 1997,
and the assessment of human factors for 3,300 flights.
- ALA video.
A 19-min video, An ALA: It Could Happen to You, presents
specific data, findings, and recommendations related to the reduction
of ALAs. The video highlights four strategies that most likely
would have prevented many ALAs: initiating a go-around, adhering
to SOPs, conducting an approach briefing, and performing a pull-up
- CFIT video.
A 32-min video of CFIT statistics, CFIT Awareness and Prevention,
presents analyses of three representative CFIT accidents and how
they might have been avoided.
- Links to aviation
statistics on the Internet. The kit provides the addresses
of 16 international web sites, some of which provide data specific
to CFIT and ALAs. All contain statistical data on airplane accidents
- Additional items.
A section of miscellaneous information lists ALAR Task Force members,
select Flight Safety Foundation publications, and available informational
posters about reducing ALAs.