Proposed noise limits for Swiss airports

Short information on proposed noise exposure limits for civil airports

On July 6, 1999, a public consultation was opened on a change of aircraft noise exposure evaluation and land use planning rules. The change also includes a new concept of night flying restrictions based on aircraft noise characterisitcs. Comments on the proposed rules are to be addressed to the Federal Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape SAEFL, CH-3003 BERN, until September 15, 1999.

The main elements of the change are:

  1. The existing aircraft noise zones using NNI (Noise and Number Index) as annoyance descriptor shall be replaced by noise exposure registers ('cadastres') based on Leq (equivalent continuous sound level) in accordance with the NAO (Noise Abatement Ordinance, the basic Swiss noise abatement rule developed to cover all sorts of noise, essentially from ground based sources).
  2. The noise exposure registers specify the actual or forecasted noise exposure contours as well as existing or planned land uses and their corresponding noise sensitivity levels. It identifies those areas where exposure limits are exceeded. In principle, any exceeding nose exposure shall be reduced. If a reduction to or below the limit(s) is not achievable due to prevailing other interests (e.g. public transport infrastructure), sound proofing of noise sensitive rooms will be required at polluters expense, and compensation for loss of property value may be claimed. No new buildings for residential or other noise sensitive uses may be built in these areas.

    Compensation costs, as imposed by the Federal Court so far, are in the order of 5 to 10 times higher than the relevant costs for sound proofing.

  3. The most significant limits proposed are the daytime exposure limit value of Lr = 60 dB(A) and the nighttime limit of 57 dB(A) for residential areas, sensitivity level II. The daytime limit is equivalent to an Leq of 62 dB(A), 06 to 22 hrs, yearly average. The nighttime limit refers to a one hour Leq for each period 22 23, 23 24 and 05 06 hrs, which is approximately eqivalent to a limit of 48 dB(A), if related to an average Leq 22 06 hours as current for road and railway noise.
  4. It is estimated that the resulting cost of aircraft noise using the proposed limits at Zurich and Geneva airports will be in the order of one billion CHF (~ Euro 600 M), related to 1997 traffic totalling 350'000 commercial aircraft movments and 25 M passengers. The corresponding contors enclose approximately 35'000 residing persons and and a surface of 68 Km2.

  5. Of similar significance are the so called planning values. These values are used to designate the area where no new (residential) zoning will be allowed and where existing zones may partly be revoked. The proposed planning values are 3 dB(A) lower than the exposure limit values at daytime, and 2 dB(A) lower at night. A difference of 3 dB approximately doubles or halves the surface affected.
  6. The proposed change also includes a different approach to night operating restrictions. Swiss airports apply night curfews between midnight and 06:00 (05:00 for landings). Aircraft movments between 22 and 24 hrs are restricted according to their operational status, e.g. private, charter or scheduled. It is proposed that the differenciation between charter and scheduled flights shall be dropped in favour of noise level dependent restrictions: take offs for short and medium range flights would be limited to aircraft with a maximum noise level of 95 EPNdB, referring to the arithmetic mean value of lateral and flyover noise levels as certificated for the aircraft type in accordance with Chapter 3 of ICAO Annex 16, Vol.1. Take offs for long range (intercontinental) flights would be limited a maximum noise level of 100 EPNdB in 2008.

19.07.99/we

 

Entwurf vom 21

Public Consultation on new noise rules for Swiss airports, July-September 1999

Translation of proposed text 21 June, 1999 (essential parts only), 16.07.99 we

 

I

The Noise Abatement Ordinance (NAO) of 15. December 1986 shall be modified as follows:

Art.32 [Noise protection for new bulidings: sound proofing against aircraft noise requires external hulls of buildings to have a mass of at least 450 kg/m2 and intermediate floors to be at least 16 cm of compact concrete].

II

Appendix 5 of the NAO shall be revised as follows:

 

Appendix 5: Exposure limits for noise from civil airports

1 Scope and definitions

1 The exposure limits pursuant to Subsection 2 shall apply to the noise from civil airports.

2 Civil airports are the main airports of Basle, Geneva and Zurich, the other concessioned [regional] airports and the airfields.

3 Light aircraft are propeller driven aircraft with a certificated maximum take off mass of 8618 kg or less.

4 Transport aircraft are propeller driven aircraft with a certificated maximum take off mass of more than 8618 kg, and jet aircraft.

5 The noise from repair workshops, maintenance works and similar operations at airports, etc., shall be taken as equivalent to the noise from industrial installations (Annex 6 Subs.1).

  1. Exposure limits

21 Exposure limits in Lrk for light aircraft traffic noise, dB(A)

Sensitivity level *

Planning value

Exposure limit

Alarm value

I

50

55

65

II

55

60

70

III

60

65

70

IV

65

70

75

 

  1. Exposure limits in Lr for total traffic of light aircraft and transport aircraft, dB(A)

In addition to the limits in Lrk, the following limits shall apply for all traffic at civil airports used by transport aircraft:

  1. Daytime exposure limits in Lrt (06-22 hours), dB(A)
  2. Sensitivity level *

    Planning value

    Exposure limit

    Alarm value

    I

    55

    57

    60

    II

    57

    60

    65

    III

    60

    65

    70

    IV

    65

    70

    75

  3. Nighttime hourly exposure limits in Lrn (22-23, 23-24 and 05-06 hours) , dB(A)

Sensitivity level *

Planning value

Exposure limit

Alarm value

I

48

50

58

II

55

57

65

III

55

57

65

IV

60

62

70

 

 

  1. Exposure limits in L̅max

In addition to the limits in Lrk, the following limits in L̅max shall apply for airfields used exclusively by helicopters (heliports):

Sensitivity level *

Planning value

Exposure limit

Alarm value

I

70

75

85

II

75

80

90

III

80

85

90

IV

85

90

95

 

  1. Determination of the reference exposure level Lrk for light aircraft noise

31 Principles

1 The reference exposure level Lrk for noise from light aircraft is the sum of the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound level Leqk and the level correction K:

Lrk = Leqk + K

2 The equivalent continuous sound level Leqk shall be determined for the average number of hourly aircraft movements (number of movements n) for a day with average peak operations.

3 Aircraft movements shall be deemed to be all landings and take-offs of combustion engine driven aircraft. Missed approaches shall count as two movements.

32 Number of flight movements n for existing civil airports.

For existing civil airports, the number of light aircraft movements n shall be determined as follows:

a. the six months having the greatest traffic during the operating year shall be determined;

b. during these six months, the average number of movements per day of week shall be determined separately; the average daily values for the two weekdays with the greatest traffic shall be designated as N1 and N2;

c. n shall be determined from N1 and N2 by averaging these over twelve daytime hours as follows:

n = (N1 + N2)/24

33 Number of movements n for new civil airports

1 For civil airports to be built or modified, the number of movements n shall be determined from traffic forecasts.

2 If no detailed forecasts can be made, n shall be calculated from the forecasted yearly number of movements N as follows:

n = (N· 2.4)/(365· 12)

34 Level corrections

The level correction K shall be calculated from the yearly number of movements N as follows:

K = 0

for N < 15 000

K = 10· log (N/15 000)

for N ³ 15 000

 

4 Determination of the reference exposure level Lr for total traffic of light aircraft and transport aircraft

  1. Principles
  2. 1 The reference exposure level Lr for total traffic shall be calculated separately for daytime (06-22 hrs) and for each nighttime airport operating hour (22-33, 23-24 and 05-06 hrs).

    2 The daytime reference exposure level Lrt shall be calculated from the reference levels for light aircraft noise Lrk and for transport aircraft noise Lrg as follows:

    Lr t = 10 log (10 0,1 Lr k + 10 0,1 Lr g )

    3 The daytime reference exposure level Lrg for transport aircraft noise is the sum of the A-weighted mean sound level Leqg from transport aircraft operations between 06 and 22 hours, as averaged for a year, and the level correction K:

    Lr g = Leq g + K

    where K = -2

    4The hourly nighttime reference exposure level Lrn for transport aircraft noise is the A-weighted mean sound level Leqn from transport aircraft operations for each nighttime operating hour, that is 22-23, 23-24 and 05-06 hours, as averaged for a year.

    Lrn = Leqn

  3. Reference number of aircraft movements

1 The reference noise levels Leqg and Leqn are determined from operational data.

2 Aircraft movements between 24 and 05 hours are added to the 23-24 operating hour

3 For civil airports to be built or modified, the number of movements shall be determined from traffic forecasts

5 Determination of the average maximum noise level L̅max for heliports

1 The average maximum noise level L̅max for heliports shall be the energetic average of the maximum noise level of a representative number of passing flights or overflights.

2 Measurements of L̅max shall be performed with the instrument setting SLOW or with a noise meter having a recording speed of 16 mm/s.

 

III

The ordinance on Aviation Infrastructure (OAI) of 23 November 1994 shall be modified as follows:

Art. 39 Principles

1 Take offs and landings of non commercial flights are prohibited between 22.00 und 06.00

hours.

2 Take offs and landings of commercial flights between 22.00 und 06.00 are restricted as specified in Art. 39a and 39b hereafter.

3 Under unforeseen, extraordinary circumstances, the airport operator may grant exemptions. He will report the exemptions to the Federal Office [for Civil Aviation].

4 No restrictions apply to emergency landings and flights for the purpose of search and rescue, ambulance, policy enforcement, humanitarian aid as well as military flights and diplomatic flights approved by the Federal Office.

5 The number of take offs and landings between 22 and 0600 hours as well as the aircraft types used shall be reported in the airports statistics.

Art. 39a(new) Limitations for commercial aircraft operations at the main airports Geneva and Zurich

1 Take offs at the airports of Geneva and Zurich are:

a. allowed between 22.00 und 24.00 hours:

1. for intercontinental commercial flights with aircraft with a maximum noise level of 100 EPNdB, and

2. for other commercial flights with aircraft with a maximum noise level of 95 EPNdB;

b. prohibited between 24.00 and 06.00 hours.

2 Take offs with a delay of up to 30 minutes relative to their flight plan are allowed for aircraft with noise levels higher than those stated in subparagraph 1a.

3 Landings of commercial flights at Geneva and Zurich airports are prohibited between 24.00 und 05.00 hours.

 

Art. 39b(new) Limitations for commercial aircraft operations at the other concessioned airports

Take offs and landings for commercial aircraft operations at [regional] airports are:

a. allowed between 22.00 und 23.00 hours with aircraft with a maximum noise level of 87 EPNdB;

b. prohibited between 23.00 and 06.00 hours.

Art. 39c(new) Reference maximum noise levels

The reference maximum noise level of an aircraft is the arithmetic average value of the certificated noise levels of that type at the lateral and flyover measuring points as specified in ICAO Annex 16, Vol.1, Chapter 3.

Art. 40 to 47 (noise zones) deleted

Implementation

Take offs for intercontinental flights according to Art. 39a, sub. 1.a.1 are acceptable with aircraft with a maximum noise level of more than 100 EPNdB until 31 March, 2008.

 

 

end of translation