Aero 23 Index Horizontal Navigation

Index Vertical Navigation Erroneous Flight Instrument Information-Situations and GuidanceElectronic Flight BagMike Cave PDF file


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Proper speed is essential when flying takeoff turnback procedures. Lower speeds decrease the climb capability and thereby reduce terrain clearance. Higher speeds increase the turn radius and bring the airplane closer to valley walls.

The pilots had the option of overbanking to stick-shaker speed or the initial buffet speed to achieve a smaller turn radius. They also could have combined pitch and roll to trade speed for altitude and reduced turn radius. Although these maneuvers are non-normal and were beyond the scope of this study, the pilots discussed their potential use to avoid terrain in an emergency or in high, unexpected cross-canyon wind conditions.

Optimal performance was achieved during the takeoffs from Paro by accelerating the airplane to a speed that was 10 kias faster than the minimum safety takeoff speed (10 kias of improved climb). This allowed for 30 deg of bank angle and provided the climb gradient necessary to initiate the turnback.

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